Guide Adenauers Foreign Office: West German Diplomacy in the Shadow of the Third Reich

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After the outbreak of the Korean War on 25 June , the U. Further contributing to the crisis atmosphere of was the bellicose rhetoric of the East German leader Walter Ulbricht , who proclaimed the reunification of Germany under communist rule to be imminent.

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In October , Adenauer received the so-called " Himmerod memorandum " drafted by four former Wehrmacht generals at the Himmerod Abbey that linked freedom for German war criminals as the price of German rearmament, along with public statements from the Allies that the Wehrmacht committed no war crimes in World War II. McCloy , to argue that executing the Landsberg prisoners would ruin forever any effort at having the Federal Republic play its role in the Cold War. By laws were passed by the Bundestag ending denazification.

Denazification was viewed by the United States as counterproductive and ineffective, and its demise was not opposed. The construction of a "competent Federal Government effectively from a standing start was one of the greatest of Adenauer's formidable achievements". Contemporary critics accused Adenauer of cementing the division of Germany, sacrificing reunification and the recovery of territories lost in the westward shift of Poland and the Soviet Union with his determination to secure the Federal Republic to the West.

In , the Stalin Note , as it became known, "caught everybody in the West by surprise". Adenauer and his cabinet were unanimous in their rejection of the Stalin overture; they shared the Western Allies' suspicion about the genuineness of that offer and supported the Allies in their cautious replies. In this, they were supported by leader of the opposition Kurt Schumacher a very rare occurrence , and recent 21st century findings of historical research. Critics denounced him for having missed an opportunity for German reunification.

The Soviets sent a second note, courteous in tone.

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Adenauer by then understood that "all opportunity for initiative had passed out of his hands," [68] and the matter was put to rest by the Allies. Given the realities of the Cold War , German reunification and recovery of lost territories in the east were not realistic goals as both of Stalin's notes specified the retention of the existing "Potsdam"-decreed boundaries of Germany. Adenauer recognized the obligation of the West German government to compensate Israel , as the main representative of the Jewish people , for The Holocaust. West Germany started negotiations with Israel for restitution of lost property and the payment of damages to victims of Nazi persecution.

West Germany then initially paid about 3 billion Mark to Israel and about million to the Claims Conference, although payments continued after that, as new claims were made. Those treaties were cited as a main reason for the assassination attempt by the radical Jewish groups against Adenauer. On 27 March , a package addressed to Chancellor Adenauer exploded in the Munich Police Headquarters, killing one Bavarian police officer.

Investigations revealed the mastermind behind the assassination attempt was Menachem Begin , who would later become the Prime Minister of Israel. His goal was to put pressure on the German government and prevent the signing of the Reparations Agreement between Israel and West Germany , which he vehemently opposed.

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When the East German uprising of was harshly suppressed by the Red Army in June , Adenauer took political advantage of the situation and was handily re-elected to a second term as Chancellor. In , he received the Karlspreis English: Charlemagne Award , an award by the German city of Aachen to people who contributed to the European idea, European cooperation and European peace.

In the spring of , opposition to the Pleven plan grew within the French National Assembly. Additionally, Adenauer promised that the West German military would be under the operational control of NATO general staff, though ultimate control would rest with the West German government; and that above all he would never violate the strictly defensive NATO charter and invade East Germany to achieve German reunification. In November , Adenauer's lobbying efforts on behalf of the "Spandau Seven" finally bore fruit with the release of Konstantin von Neurath.

His political commitment to the Western powers achieved full sovereignty for West Germany, which was formally laid down in the General Treaty , although there remained Allied restrictions concerning the status of a potentially reunited Germany and the state of emergency in West Germany.

Adenauer is closely linked to the implementation of an enhanced pension system, which ensured unparalleled prosperity for retired people. Along with his Minister for Economic Affairs and successor Ludwig Erhard , the West German model of a " social market economy " a mixed economy with capitalism moderated by elements of social welfare and Catholic social teaching allowed for the boom period known as the Wirtschaftswunder "economic miracle" that produced broad prosperity. The Adenauer era witnessed a dramatic rise in the standard of living of average Germans, with real wages doubling between and In return for the release of the last German prisoners of war in , the Federal Republic established diplomatic relations with the USSR , but refused to recognize East Germany and broke off diplomatic relations with countries e.

In , during the Suez Crisis , Adenauer completely supported the Anglo-French-Israeli attack on Egypt, arguing to his Cabinet that Nasser was a pro-Soviet force that needed to be cut down to size. The threat of a Soviet nuclear strike that could destroy Paris at any moment added considerably to the tension of the summit. Adenauer was deeply shocked by the Soviet threat of nuclear strikes against Britain and France, and even more so by the apparent quiescent American response to the Soviet threat of nuclear annihilation against two of NATO's key members.

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Adenauer reached an agreement for his "nuclear ambitions" with a NATO Military Committee in December that stipulated West German forces were to be "equipped for nuclear warfare ". The French government then proposed that France, West Germany and Italy jointly develop and produce nuclear weapons and delivery systems , and an agreement was signed in April With the ascendancy of Charles de Gaulle , the agreement for joint production and control was shelved indefinitely.

Kennedy , an ardent foe of nuclear proliferation , considered sales of such weapons moot since "in the event of war the United States would, from the outset, be prepared to defend the Federal Republic. With Adenauer's fourth-term election in November and the end of his chancellorship in sight, his "nuclear ambitions" began to taper off. In the Saarland was reintegrated into Germany and federal state of the Federal Republic. The election of essentially dealt with national matters. In September , Adenauer first met President Charles de Gaulle of France, who was to become a close friend and ally in pursuing Franco-German rapprochement.

On 27 November another Berlin crisis broke out when Khrushchev submitted an ultimatum with a six-month expiry date to Washington, London and Paris, where he demanded that the Allies pull all their forces out of West Berlin and agree that West Berlin become a "free city", or else he would sign a separate peace treaty with East Germany. Adenauer tarnished his image when he announced he would run for the office of federal president in , only to pull out when he discovered that under the Basic Law , the president had far less power than he did in the Weimar Republic.

One of Adenauer's reasons for not pursuing the presidency was his fear that Ludwig Erhard, whom Adenauer thought little of, would become the new chancellor. By early , Adenauer came under renewed pressure from his Western allies, to recognize the Oder-Neisse line , with the Americans being especially insistent.

After Adenauer's intention to sign non-aggression pacts with Poland and Czechoslovakia became clear, the German expellee lobby swung into action and organized protests all over the Federal Republic while bombarding the offices of Adenauer and other members of the cabinet with thousands of letters, telegrams and telephone calls promising never to vote CDU again if the non-aggression pacts were signed.

Their strained relationship impeded effective Western action on Berlin during The construction of the Berlin Wall in August and the sealing of borders by the East Germans made Adenauer's government look weak. Adenauer chose to remain on the campaign trail, and made a disastrous misjudgement in a speech on 14 August in Regensburg when he engaged in a personal attack on the SPD Mayor of West Berlin, Willy Brandt saying that Brandt's illegitimate birth had disqualified him from holding any sort of office. Adenauer was forced to make two concessions: to relinquish the chancellorship before the end of the new term, his fourth, and to replace his foreign minister.

During this time, Adenauer came into conflict with the Economics Minister Ludwig Erhard over the depth of German integration to the West. Erhard was in favor of allowing Britain to join to create a trans-Atlantic free trade zone, while Adenauer was for strengthening ties amongst the original founding six nations of West Germany, France, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Italy.

In October , a scandal erupted when police arrested five Der Spiegel journalists, charging them with espionage for publishing a memo detailing weaknesses in the West German armed forces. Adenauer had not initiated the arrests, but initially defended the person responsible, Defense Minister Franz Josef Strauss , and called the Spiegel memo "abyss of treason". After public outrage and heavy protests from the coalition partner FDP he dismissed Strauss, but the reputation of Adenauer and his party had already suffered.

Adenauer managed to remain in office for almost another year, but the scandal increased the pressure already on him to fulfill his promise to resign before the end of the term. Adenauer was not on good terms in his last years of power with his economics minister Ludwig Erhard and tried to block him from the chancellorship. In January , Adenauer privately supported General Charles de Gaulle 's veto of Britain's attempt to join the European Economic Community , and was only prevented from saying so openly by the need to preserve unity in his cabinet as most of his ministers led by Erhard supported Britain's application.

He remained chairman of the CDU until his resignation in December Adenauer ensured a truly free and democratic society, except the banning of the communist party and the BND spying on SDP on behalf of the CDU see below , and laid the groundwork for Germany to reenter the community of nations and to evolve as a dependable member of the Western world. It can be argued that because of Adenauer's policies, a later reunification of both German states was possible; and unified Germany has remained a solid partner in the European Union and NATO.

The British historian Frederick Taylor argued that in many ways the Adenauer era was a transition period in values and viewpoints from the authoritarianism that characterized Germany in the first half of the 20th century to the more democratic values that characterized the western half Germany in the second half of the 20th century. Adenauer's years in the Chancellorship saw the realization of a number of important initiatives in the domestic field, such as in housing, pension rights, and unemployment provision.

A major housebuilding programme was launched, while measures introduced to assist war victims [] and expellees. Employer-funded child allowances for three or more children were established in , and in the indexation of pension schemes was introduced, together with an old age assistance scheme for agricultural workers. Thanks to the BND , information on the internal machinations of the opposition SPD party were available to the entire CDU leadership, and not merely to Adenauer in his capacity as chancellor. According to his daughter, his last words were " Da jitt et nix zo kriesche!

When, in , after his death at the age of 91, Germans were asked what they admired most about Adenauer, the majority responded that he had brought home the last German prisoners of war from the USSR, which had become known as the "Return of the 10,". In , Adenauer was voted the 'greatest German of all time' in a contest called Unsere Besten run on German public-service television broadcaster ZDF in which more than three million votes were cast.

Adolf Hitler and Erich Honecker were excluded from the nominations. Adenauer was the main motive for one of the most recent and famous gold commemorative coins: the Belgian 3 pioneers of the European unification commemorative coin , minted in The obverse side shows a portrait with the names Robert Schuman , Paul-Henri Spaak and Konrad Adenauer; the three most important figures of the founding fathers of the European Union.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer disambiguation. Centre Party — Christian Democratic Union — This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.

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Konrad Adenauer Stiftung in German. Portraits and Miniatures. Click here to learn more. In-depth analysis delivered weekly - Subscribe to our newsletter, featuring our editors' top picks from the past week.

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